Types and working principles of pure water machine
Most of the world â€™s water bodies are seriously polluted, exacerbating the contradiction of shortage of water resources. The traditional tap water treatment method cannot guarantee the supply of high-quality drinking water, and there are two pollution problems in municipal water supply. For example, high-level water tank water supply and long tap water transmission pipelines will cause potential rust, scale and Microbial and other pollution problems, therefore, various brands of water purifiers came into being. Water purifiers can be divided into the following 11 categories according to water quality treatment.
1. The softening method refers to removing or reducing water hardness (mainly refers to calcium and magnesium ions in water) to a certain extent. In the process of water softening, it only softens the water quality, but cannot improve the water quality.
2. Distillation refers to boiling water and then collecting steam to cool and condense it into a liquid. Distilled water is extremely safe drinking water, but there are some issues to be further explored. Since distilled water does not contain minerals, this is the reason why opponents say that human life is prone to aging. In addition, the distillation method is relatively expensive and consumes energy, and cannot remove volatile substances in water.
3. The boiling method refers to drinking after tap water is boiled. This is an ancient method and is widely used in China. Boiling water can kill bacteria, but some chemicals and heavy metals cannot be removed, even if its content is extremely low, so it is still unsafe to drink.
4. The magnetization method refers to the treatment of water using the magnetic field effect, which is called the magnetization of water. The process of magnetization is the process of completing magnetization after water passes through the magnet in the direction perpendicular to the lines of magnetic force. The magnetization treatment of water in China is still in the initial stage of practice and research so far. Foreign water purifiers do not require the magnetization function, because magnetized water does not belong to the scope of water purification, but belongs to medical problems.
5. The mineralization method refers to adding mineral elements (such as calcium, zinc, strontium and other elements) that are beneficial to the human body to the water on the basis of purification. The purpose is to exert the health care function of mineral water. Commercial water purifiers generally achieve the purpose of mineralization by adding maifan stone to the water purifier, but the artificial mineralization effect is still a controversial issue.
6. Ozone, ultraviolet sterilization can only sterilize these aspects, can not remove heavy metals and chemicals in the water, and the dead bacteria remains in the water and become a pyrogen.
7. Water purifier Water purifier is a newly invented product in Japan. It purifies water first, and then performs electrolytic activation. Its alkaline activated water corresponds to the PH value of the human body environment and has a health care effect on the human body. Drinking; acid activated water can be used for face washing and bathing, and has a cosmetic effect. However, there are different views on the principles of water rectification, the quality of water rectification, and the impact on the human body after use, and further discussion is needed.
8. Activated carbon adsorption (can be divided into the following three forms)
8.1 Granular activated carbon is more commonly used, and it is made of carbonaceous materials such as essence, coal quality, nut shell (core), etc. by chemical method or physical activation method. It has a lot of micropores and specific surface area, so it has a strong adsorption capacity and can effectively adsorb organic pollutants in water. In addition, during the activation process, some oxygen-containing functional groups are formed on the non-crystalline parts of the surface of the activated carbon. These groups make the activated carbon have chemical adsorption and catalytic oxidation and reduction properties, which can effectively remove some metal ions in water.
8.2 Silver-permeable activated carbon combines activated carbon and silver, which not only has an adsorption effect on organic pollutants in water, but also has a bactericidal effect, and does not grow bacteria in activated carbon. The problem of high content. When the water passes through the silver-permeable activated carbon, the silver ions will be slowly released and play a role in disinfection and sterilization. Activated carbon has a good effect on removing color, smell, chlorine, iron, arsenic, mercury, cyanide, phenol, etc. in water, and the sterilization effect is more than 90%, so it is used in small water purifiers.
8.3 Fiber activated carbon A new type of adsorbent material formed by the activation treatment of organic carbon fibers. It has a developed microporous structure, a huge specific surface area, and numerous functional groups. Abroad has made remarkable achievements in the use of fiber activated carbon for solvent recovery, gas purification, etc .; also done a lot of research work in water treatment applications.
9. Reverse osmosis membrane method A type of membrane separation technology. This method uses pressure to pass water through the synthetic membrane. The membrane only allows pure water to pass through, while contaminants are eliminated. The operation of the system depends on several factors, such as fluctuating water pressure, membrane life, and clogging of membrane pores, which can affect the quality of the effluent. In addition, bacterial growth on the membrane is also a problem. The reverse osmosis system consumes a large amount of water, usually one gallon of treated water is prepared from 10-20 gallons. This kind of system is very expensive, and it is doing daily service, monitoring and membrane replacement.
10. Microfiltration and ultrafiltration The microfiltration method is a microporous membrane made of cellulose or polymer materials, which uses its uniform pore size to trap particles, bacteria, colloids, etc. in water so that it is not removed through the membrane. This microporous membrane filtration technology, also known as particle dense filtration technology, can filter micron or nanoscale particles and bacteria. Both ultrafiltration and microfiltration belong to membrane separation technology. There is no obvious boundary between the two. The working pressure of ultrafiltration is generally about 0.3 MPa, which can remove macromolecular substances, bacteria, viruses, etc. in water, but the flux is low .
11. Compound type When one process is difficult to remove harmful substances in water, two or more types of processes are called compound type. Such as activated carbon adsorption? Ultraviolet sterilization, activated carbon adsorption? Reverse osmosis, activated carbon adsorption? Microfiltration (ultrafiltration), polypropylene ultrafine fibers? Living carbon? Microfiltration (ultrafiltration), etc. In the composite water purifier, the membrane technology composite water purifier has excellent water purification performance, especially in the removal of microorganisms (bacteria, algae, etc.). It has a relatively significant effect. Some of the high-quality water purifiers can directly drink raw water. Has been welcomed by the majority of consumers, has become a hot spot in the current development of water purifiers.
From the above classification method of pure water machine, it is not difficult to see that the household water purifier is essentially a miniaturization of deep water treatment. Its main processing objects are turbidity, color, smell and organic matter in tap water. It generally consists of three parts: pre-filtration (coarse filtration), adsorption and fine filtration (microfiltration, ultrafiltration, reverse osmosis). Among them, adsorption (usually activated carbon adsorption) and fine filtration are the main means to remove organic matter, odor and color in water. The objective operation conditions directly affect the effluent quality of the water purifier. The service targets of household water purifiers are thousands of households, but due to the difference in water quality and water pressure conditions in the use area, the users lack the necessary operating knowledge, and the current product design cannot cope with the ever-changing situation, so the water purifier The manufacturer should consider allowing users to master certain professional knowledge, standardize the installation and operation of water purifiers, so that the quality of the effluent water achieves the desired effect, so that users can rest assured.
The design and manufacture of pure water machine is a comprehensive science and technology. The design principles of the water purifier should be for the user's sake. As far as the characteristics of water quality in various regions of China are concerned, organic pollution is serious along the Yangtze River and in densely populated areas. However, there are bacterial contamination problems in small township water supply enterprises and groundwater use areas throughout the country. Therefore, only some high-quality water purifiers can adapt to different water quality across the country. Therefore, water purifier manufacturers should carefully design water purifiers that can adapt to different water sources but have good treatment effects according to the water quality conditions in different regions.
Since the 1960s, the research and development of drinking water purifiers in foreign countries have attached great importance. It reached its peak in the 1970s and continues to this day. The reason for its prevalence lies in the worsening environmental pollution and the increasing demand for drinking water hygiene. During this period, although the effectiveness of some water purifiers was not satisfactory, they were accused by the society and once entered a recession period, but with the continuous progress of science and technology, the performance of various water purification equipment has also been greatly improved, which guarantees the net The main direction of the water industry is sterilization, and the second is organic and inorganic pollutants. In addition, foreign water purifiers are developing in the direction of purity. Naturally, artificial mineralization and magnetization of purified water are not advocated. In order to protect the health of the people, drinking water should refer to the latest drinking water standards of the World Health Organization WHO to test drinking water purifier products, and pass the inspection by authoritative organizations such as the National Sanitation Foundation (NSF) of the United States The product certificate shall be approved for listing.
In short, the pure water machine is related to the drinking water safety and physical health of millions of people. For this reason, the quality of the water purifier and the quality of the water must be paid attention to by the manufacturer, and constantly absorb and adopt advanced technical equipment to continuously improve the water purifier. Quality meets the rising consumer needs of the people.
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