There are 8 long-term projects in Japan aiming to introduce iPS cell therapy into clinical applications, including the study of Parkinson's disease at the iPS Cell Research and Application Center of Kyoto University. 3 years. The first human clinical trial using iPS cells to repair retinopathy is expected to be conducted next year at the Developmental Biology Research Center of the Japan Institute of Physics and Chemistry. If these or any other iPS cell experiments are successful, the demand for iPS cells will explode. To customize iPS cells for individual patients, the preparation and testing of each cell line takes 6 months and costs tens of thousands of dollars.
Yamanaka's plan is to establish a standard library of 75 iPS cell lines by 2020, enough to match 80% of Japan's population. To this end, Yamanaka Yamanaka needs to select 75 suitable donors from a sample of 64,000 people. Any one of the three key genes encoding human leukocyte antigens (HLAs) must have two identical copies.
This process can be simplified by using the blood stored in eight umbilical cord blood banks in Japan. These banks hold 29,000 samples, which meet the requirements. Yamanaka Yamanaka is negotiating to obtain the right to use samples that prove to be unsuitable for other medical procedures.
Currently, Yamanaka Yamanaka has constructed a cell processing facility and has submitted an application to the Kyoto University Ethics Committee to establish a cell line bank. Its research team hopes that by March next year it will be able to obtain its first cell line, which can match 8% of the Japanese population.
The advantage of Yamanaka Yamanaka's project is that the genetic diversity of the Japanese population is relatively low. If the rest of the world, this kind of therapeutic iPS cell bank will be larger and the cost will be higher. Most iPS cell banks outside Japan use cells from patients for research rather than treatment. For example, the California Institute of Regenerative Medicine plans to save 3,000 cell lines for researchers to use.
Alan Chuangsen, president of the California Institute of Regenerative Medicine, believes that many research questions about iPS cells have not been resolved, and it is "immature" to carry out therapeutic trials. "We have not fully understood these cells." He pointed out that these cells are cultivated from differentiated cells and may cause mutations and other defects. Stanford University stem cell biologist Irving Westman warned that iPS cells transformed from blood cells have been shown to form tumors.
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